American Toad (Bufo americanus)

The most spectacular toad of the year.
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Light colored toad in the forest
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American Toad (Bufo americanus) "warts" detail
“Warts” detail
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Toad, Fillmore, NY
Juvenile (Fillmore, NY)

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American Toad (Bufo americanus)
Photo © by Dave Huth, some rights reserved. Click image for licensing information.

American Toad (Bufo americanus)
Photo © by Dave Huth, some rights reserved. Click image for licensing information.

American Toad (Bufo americanus) - grumpy
Photo © by Dave Huth, some rights reserved. Click image for licensing information.


Description

Generally, the B. americanus is short and fat in body, with a short broad head and broadly circular snout. It’s underbelly is granular, and the back is covered with different-sized warts. There are three or four pairs of dark spots down the back, each accompanied by one large wart. The eyes are prominent. The arms and legs are tubular and warty. They are generally olive in color, with parotoids and a brown crest.

Males are roughly 54-85 mm in length. Their back, sides and tympanum are of a dull citrine color with olive-citrine or yellow olive color on their hind legs and forelegs. The whole pectoral region is covered with scattered black spots, and these spots occur over the entire venter except for the throat and the center of the rear belly. There is some apricot-yellow color across the arm insertion. The pupil is rimmed with a citron yellow color.

Females are roughly 56-110 mm in length. The back is of a light brownish or buffy olive. The bigger warts are on the back, and the warts are in the centers of buffy brown colored spots. There is a stripe down the middle of the back, of a deep-olive buff color, yellow, or vinaceous-fawn, that leads from parotoid to groin. In the center of the breast, there is a dark spot (Wright 1949).

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Distribution and Habitat

Bufo americanus can be found in Eastern North American, from the maritime provinces of Quebec and Ontario in Canada to Minnesota. Its range spans from the northern borders of the Gulf States, excluding Louisiana, and Texas. They can also be found in Arkansas, eastern Oaklahoma, and eastern Kansas. Specifically in Canada, theB. americanus can be found in Ungava, James Bay, and sometimes the coast of the Hudson Bay. It can also be found in Prince Edward Island to East Manitoba, and has been introduced to parts of Newfoundland (Cook 1984).During the periods where the toads are not reproducing, they live in within an area of 100′ x 100′. However, during the breeding period, they may move several thousand feet away.
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© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2009 The Regents of the University of California

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